[319] Montana is one of only three states to have a "state ballad",[320] "Montana Melody", chosen by the legislature in 1983. "A depiction of mountains, plains, forests, and the Great Falls of the Missouri River. *In the 1980s the absence of a sales tax became economically deleterious to communities bound to the state's tourism industry, as the revenue from income and property taxes provided by residents was grossly insignificant in regards to paying for the impact of non-residential travel—especially road repair. [103] Low clouds and fog often form in the valleys west of the divide in winter, but this is rarely seen in the east. [104], Average daytime temperatures vary from 28 °F or −2.2 °C in January to 84.5 °F or 29.2 °C in July. [29] It contains the state's highest point, Granite Peak, 12,799 feet (3,901 m) high. The legislature increased the number of justices to five in 1919. Montana is the 43 rd most populous and the 4 th most extensive of the 50 states of the United States.It lies is in the Northwestern United States. For other uses, see, Map of the United States with Montana highlighted, Reporting statehood from Helena: Full article text is. [37] The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains,[38] Bull Mountains,[39] Castle Mountains,[40] Crazy Mountains,[41] Highwood Mountains,[42] Judith Mountains,[42] Little Belt Mountains,[40] Little Rocky Mountains,[42] the Pryor Mountains,[41] Little Snowy Mountains, Big Snowy Mountains,[39] Sweet Grass Hills,[39] and—in the state's southeastern corner near Ekalaka—the Long Pines. Montana Shakespeare in the Parks has been performing free, live theatrical productions of Shakespeare and other classics throughout Montana and the Northwest region since 1973. [45] The underlying surface consists of sandstone and shale. He is well known for having bribed his way into the U.S. Senate. The highest observed summer temperature was 117 °F or 47.2 °C at Glendive on July 20, 1893, and Medicine Lake on July 5, 1937. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching. Throughout the state, summer nights are generally cool and pleasant. Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory. [267], Snowmobiling is popular in Montana, which boasts over 4,000 miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter. How did Rizal overcome frustration in his romance? [259], Montana has been a destination for its world-class trout fisheries since the 1930s. [28] The Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet (3,000 m) high in the continental United States. The Blackfeet nation is headquartered on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation (1851) in Browning, Crow on the Crow Indian Reservation (1868)[207] in Crow Agency, Confederated Salish and Kootenai and Pend d'Oreille on the Flathead Indian Reservation (1855) in Pablo, Northern Cheyenne on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation (1884) at Lame Deer, Assiniboine and Gros Ventre on the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation (1888) in Fort Belknap Agency, Assiniboine and Sioux on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation (1888) at Poplar, and Chippewa-Cree on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation (1916) near Box Elder. The court hears cases arising under the Montana Workers' Compensation Act, and is the court of original jurisdiction for reviews of orders and regulations issued by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry. The honyocker was farmer, spinster, deep-sea diver; fiddler, physician, bartender, cook. Pulitzer Prize winner Wallace Earle Stegner from Great Falls was often called "The Dean of Western Writers". [134] Nelson Story brought the first Texas Longhorn cattle into the territory in 1866. [180] The 2010 Census put Montana's population at 989,415. Still the state's most important east–west travel corridor, the route is today served by Interstate 90 and Interstate 94 which roughly follow the same route as the Northern Pacific. [166] In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. [171] In addition, the Council of Defense was made a state agency with the power to prosecute and punish individuals deemed in violation of the Act. [273], Montana does not have a Trauma I hospital, but does have Trauma II hospitals in Missoula, Billings, and Great Falls. The organization is an outreach endeavor that is part of the College of Arts & Architecture at Montana State University, Bozeman. [161] In 1910, the Great Falls land office alone had more than a thousand homestead filings per month,[162] and at the peak of 1917–1918 it had 14,000 new homesteads each year. Big Sky Country is an idea that has always intrigued me. It is the second largest House district by area, after Alaska's at-large congressional district. [64], East of the divide the Missouri River, which is formed by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers near Three Forks,[65] flows due north through the west-central part of the state to Great Falls. One of the more popular nicknames for Montana, 'The Treasure State' or 'Treasure State' legend was featured on standard license plates from 1950 to 1966. Evelyn Cameron, a naturalist and photographer from Terry documented early 20th century life on the Montana prairie, taking startlingly clear pictures of everything around her: cowboys, sheepherders, weddings, river crossings, freight wagons, people working, badlands, eagles, coyotes and wolves. [159] Then, the droughts of 1917–1921 proved devastating. This Montana state nickname was 'invented' in the same year as "The Treasure State" (1895). What is Montanas state bird. Helena was originally named “The Last Chance Gulch” and it was founded by four gold miners as they were searching for more gold in the year 1864. It is also of American origin, where its meaning is "a state name". [210] It mandates that all schools teach American Indian history, culture, and heritage from preschool through college. The Yellowstone River rises on the Continental Divide near Younts Peak in Wyoming's Teton Wilderness. [206], About 66,000 people of Native American heritage live in Montana. [127] While the treaty established what later became the Flathead Indian Reservation, trouble with interpreters and confusion over the terms of the treaty led Whites to believe the Bitterroot Valley was opened to settlement, but the tribal nations disputed those provisions. Printable map of Montana and info and links to Montana facts, famous natives, landforms, latitude, longitude, maps, symbols, timeline and weather - by worldatlas.com Montana (/mɒnˈtænə/ (listen)) is a state in the Northwestern United States. Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because 160 acres were usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory. The 1972 constitution lengthened the term of office to eight years, and established the minimum number of justices at five. They are overseen by District Court judges. [128] The Salish remained in the Bitterroot Valley until 1891. [194], The Chinese in Montana, while a low percentage today, have been an important presence. [277], As of 2010, Missoula is the 166th largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while Billings is 170th, Great Falls is 190th, the Butte-Bozeman area 191st, and Helena is 206th. The first school year ran through the summer and did not end until August 17. [303] Also notable is Representative (later Senator) Thomas H. Carter, the first Catholic to serve as chairman of the Republican National Committee (from 1892 to 1896).[304]. The state tree, the ponderosa pine, was selected by Montana schoolchildren as the preferred state tree by an overwhelming majority in a referendum held in 1908. Its four bordering states are South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, and North Dakota. [228] Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. [196] Today, the Missoula area has a large Hmong population [197] and the nearly 3,000 Montanans who claim Filipino ancestry are the largest Asian-American group in the state. Among Montana's most historically prominent senators are Thomas J. Walsh (serving from 1913 to 1933), who was President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt's choice for attorney general when he died; Burton K. Wheeler (serving from 1923 to 1947), an oft-mentioned presidential candidate and strong supporter of isolationism; Mike Mansfield, the longest-serving Senate majority leader in U.S. history; Max Baucus (served 1978 to 2014), longest-serving U.S. senator in Montana history, and the senator who shepherded the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act through the Senate in 2010; and Lee Metcalf (served 1961 to 1978), a pioneer of the environmental movement. [9] The name Montana was added in 1863 to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories (chaired at the time by James Ashley of Ohio) for the territory that would become Idaho Territory. [29] North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, and several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains.[30]. Approximately 63% of all Native people live off the reservations, concentrated in the larger Montana cities, with the largest concentration of urban Indians in Great Falls. At the state level, the pattern of split-ticket voting and divided government holds. A part of southeastern Montana was used as a corridor between the Crows and the related Hidatsas in North Dakota. Hell Roaring Creek begins in southern Montana, and when combined with the Red Rock, Beaverhead, Jefferson, Missouri, and Mississippi River, is the longest river in North America and the fourth longest river in the world. [185], In the 2015 United States Census, Montana had the second-highest percentage of U.S. military veterans of another state. [45] Known as laccoliths, they formed when igneous rock protruded through cracks in the sedimentary rock. From statehood in 1889 until 1913, Montana was represented in the United States House of Representatives by a single representative, elected at-large. [321] Schoolchildren also chose the western meadowlark as the state bird, in a 1930 vote, and the legislature acted to endorse this decision in 1931. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent.[308]. Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport is the busiest airport in the state of Montana, surpassing Billings Logan International Airport in the spring of 2013. [147], The Desert Land Act of 1877 was passed to allow settlement of arid lands in the west and allotted 640 acres (2.6 km2) to settlers for a fee of $.25 per acre and a promise to irrigate the land. What battle happened in Montana when the gold ran out? Montana has no official nickname but several unofficial ones, most notably "Big Sky Country", "The Treasure State", "Land of the Shining Mountains", and "The Last Best Place". Burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings occurred. [224] It also applies to "luxuries"- defined by law as any item item normally sold to the public or to transient visitors or tourists that does not include food purchased unprepared or unserved, medicine, medical supplies and services, appliances, hardware supplies and tools, or any necessities of life. The first formal school on record was at Fort Owen in Bitterroot valley in 1862. They consist of a chief probation officer, one or more juvenile probation officers, and support staff. In 1941, as she had in 1917, she voted against the United States' declaration of war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The capital moved to Virginia City in 1865 and to Helena in 1875. [201] The United States Department of Education estimated in 2009 that 5,274 students in Montana spoke a language at home other than English. Another nickname for the state is Big Sky Country. At least 1500 Montanans died in the war. The largest reservoir in the state is Fort Peck Reservoir on the Missouri river, which is contained by the second largest earthen dam and largest hydraulically filled dam in the world. About 2000–3000 Chinese miners were in the mining areas of Montana by 1870, and 2500 in 1890. Montanas nickname first made its appearance on … On November 8, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed Montana the union's 41st state. [176] Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015, that Virginia Class attack submarine SSN-794 will become the second commissioned warship to bear the name. [231] Madison County was the first to take advantage of the newly authorized taxes and it formed fhe first public school in Virginia City in 1886. The U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service administers 110,000 acres (450 km2) of 1.1 million acres of National Wildlife Refuges and waterfowl production areas in Montana. Fact 4: The world's shortest river is located in Montana. The remaining seat was again elected at-large. [325][326] When broadcaster Norma Ashby discovered there was no state fish, she initiated a drive via her television show, Today in Montana, and an informal citizen's election to select a state fish resulted in a win for the blackspotted cutthroat trout[327] after hot competition from the Arctic grayling. What is the state famous for. The Water Court adjudicates water rights claims under the Montana Water Use Act of 1973, and has statewide jurisdiction. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2). [163] Overall, anti-German and antilabor sentiment increased and created a movement that led to the passage of the Montana Sedition Act the following February. Brian Morris, who served as an associate justice of the Montana Supreme Court from 2005 to 2013, currently serves as a judge on the court. These three communities are the centers of Montana's three Metropolitan Statistical Areas. "Land of Shining Mountains". [126] In 1869 and 1870 respectively, the Cook–Folsom–Peterson and the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expeditions were launched from Helena into the Upper Yellowstone region and directly led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park in 1872. [199] Spanish is the language next most commonly spoken at home, with about 13,040 Spanish-language speakers in the state (1.4% of the population) in 2011. [310], Montana has 56 counties and a total of 364 "places" as defined by the United States Census Bureau; the latter comprising 129 incorporated places and 235 census-designated places. It is the fourth-largest state in the United States after Alaska, Texas, and California;[12] it is the largest landlocked state. However, farmers faced a number of problems. Montana has an avarage population of 989,415 spread between the coordinates of 46.921925 Latitude and -110.454353 Longitude. Senator in 1978). The deadline for a legislator to introduce a general bill is the 40th legislative day. [167], The Montanans who opposed U.S. entry into the war included immigrant groups of German and Irish heritage, as well as pacifist Anabaptist people such as the Hutterites and Mennonites, many of whom were also of Germanic heritage. If your impeached can you run for president again? Until 1959, the company owned five of the state's six largest newspapers. [120] Until the Oregon Treaty (1846), land west of the continental divide was disputed between the British and U.S. and was known as the Oregon Country. [274] In 2013, AARP The Magazine named the Billings Clinic one of the safest hospitals in the United States. [212] The state was sued in 2004 because of lack of funding, and the state has increased its support of the program. [27], East of the divide, several roughly parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains, and Beartooth Mountains. Find out what is the most common shorthand of Montana on Abbreviations.com! No towns are precisely antipodal to Kerguelen, though Chester and Rudyard are close. Extensive new constitutional rights for victims of crime were approved in 2016. Alaska and Hawaii have both had nuclear submarines named after them. Montana contains Glacier National Park, "The Crown of the Continent"; and parts of Yellowstone National Park, including three of the park's five entrances. WASHINGTON, D.C. Nov. 7, 1889 The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to actively facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges."[211]. Historically, the state was traversed by the main lines of three east–west transcontinental routes: the Milwaukee Road, the Great Northern, and the Northern Pacific. A second constitutional convention held in Helena in 1884 produced a constitution ratified 3:1 by Montana citizens in November 1884. Under Territorial Governor Thomas Meagher, Montanans held a constitutional convention in 1866 in a failed bid for statehood. A series of major mining discoveries in the western third of the state starting in 1862 found gold, silver, copper, lead, and coal (and later oil) which attracted tens of thousands of miners to the area. Montana is the only one of the first 48 states lacking a completed battleship being named for it. [6] The economy is primarily based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Fact 5: It is illegal to have a sheep in the cab of your truck without a chaperone. Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the reapportionment following the 1990 census, Montana lost one of its House seats. [66] Nearly one-third of the Missouri River in Montana lies behind 10 dams: Toston, Canyon Ferry, Hauser, Holter, Black Eagle, Rainbow, Cochrane, Ryan, Morony, and Fort Peck. [10] The name was changed by representatives Henry Wilson (Massachusetts) and Benjamin F. Harding (Oregon), who complained Montana had "no meaning". Montanas nickname is Treasure State. EXECUTIVE MANSION, For political reasons, Congress did not approve Montana statehood until February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted. The clerk of the Supreme Court is also an elected position, and serves a six-year term. [163], In June 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Espionage Act of 1917, which was extended by the Sedition Act of 1918. [328], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}47°03′10″N 109°38′00″W / 47.0527°N 109.6333°W / 47.0527; -109.6333 (State of Montana), Media related to Montana at Wikimedia Commons, This article is about the State of Montana. [44] Three buttes south of Great Falls are major landmarks: Cascade, Crown, Square, Shaw, and Buttes. However, the 1889 Montana constitution significantly restricted the power of state government, the legislature was much more powerful than the executive branch, and the jurisdiction of the District Courts very specifically described. State nickname Treasure State Big Sky Country Date of admission Nov. 8, 1889 State motto "Oro y Plata (Gold and Silver)" State bird western meadowlark State flower bitterroot State song “Montana” U.S. senators Steve Daines (Republican) Jon Tester (Democrat) Seats in U.S. House of Representatives 1 (of 435) Time zone Mountain (GMT − 7 hours) [151] In 1916, the Stock-Raising Homestead Act allowed homesteads of 640 acres in areas unsuitable for irrigation. Routes 87, 89, 93 and 191. The court employs 12 permanent special masters. It is the fourth largest state by area, the eighth least populous state, and the third least densely populated state. [234] The C. M. Russell Museum Complex in Great Falls, Montana, houses more than 2,000 Russell artworks, personal objects, and artifacts. [291] In 1914, Montana granted women the vote. The property's value is multiplied by a tax rate, set by the Montana Legislature, to determine its taxable value. More than a dozen additional military outposts were established in the state. [169], An economic depression began in Montana after World War I and lasted through the Great Depression until the beginning of World War II. [298], The 1972 constitution requires that voters determine every 20 years whether to hold a new constitutional convention. Some estimates say more than 13 million bison were in Montana in 1870. The front is often well defined, causing a large temperature drop in a 24-hour period. The seal shows some of Montana's beautiful scenery and tells what people were doing in pioneer times. 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