Some economists argue that the recovery was due to an about-face turnaround of Pinochet's free market policy, since he nationalized many of the same industries that were nationalized under Allende and fired the Chicago Boys from their government posts.[87]. [43] The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front stated that 49 FPMR guerrillas were killed and hundreds tortured. Andere Quellen vermuten einige 10.000 Opfer mehr. Er ging in Quillota und Valparaíso zur Schule und besuchte schließlich ab 1933 die Escuela Militar del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins in der Comuna Las Condes in Santiago de Chile, nachdem er dort zweimal abgelehnt worden war. Am 12. Pinochet did not endorse any candidate publicly. Die Verfassung sah eine starke Stellung des Präsidenten vor. Pedro Montt | Every year on the anniversary of the coup, Chile becomes more polarized and protests can be seen throughout the country. [139] The operation was overseen by Cuban naval intelligence, and also involved the Soviet Union. So it is a very effective demolition of any kind of attempt to … Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte [.mw-parser-output .IPA a{text-decoration:none}pinoˈʧet] (* 25. Many of the Chicago boys joined the government, and Pinochet was largely sympathetic to them. Aufarbeitung BND, Chile-Putsch und viele offene Fragen. [150], Experimental theatre groups from Universidad de Chile and Pontifical Catholic University of Chile were restricted by the military regime to performing only theatre classics. Allende died that day of suspected suicide. José Joaquín Prieto Vial | All political activity was declared "in recess". Its candidate Patricio Aylwin, a Christian Democrat, behaved as if he had won and refused a second television debate with Büchi. The Pinochet regime was a violent one, and made sure that anyone they viewed as being opposed to Pinochet was eliminated, or forced into submission. The protests were faced with increased government repression from 1984, with the biggest and last protest summoned in July 1986. Some key figures in the Nixon administration, such as Henry Kissinger, used the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to mount a major destabilization campaign. Ximena Buster, 'Watch out for the little nazi man that all of have inside: The mobilization and demobilization of women in militarized Chile', Women's Studies International Forum, 11:5, p. 490; Fabiola Bahamondes Carrasco, 'Centros de Madres en el Chile rural. [117] Britain formally withdrew its Santiago ambassador in 1974, however reinstated the position in 1980 under the Margaret Thatcher government.[118]. Since he was the commander-in-chief of the oldest branch of the military forces (the Army), he was made the titular head of the junta, and soon after President of Chile. [145] A scarcity of records and the censorship imposed on part of the music catalog made a "cassette culture" emmerge among the affected audiences. Sie errichtete eine Diktatur, in der politische Parteien verboten wurden, Zensur herrschte und Kritiker gewaltsam ausgeschaltet wurden. The economic policies espoused by the Chicago Boys and implemented by the junta initially caused several economic indicators to decline for Chile's lower classes. March 20, 2005, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (. Der Fotograf José Giribás hat den Anfang und das Ende der Diktatur dokumentiert. Im Gegenzug habe Pinochet Waffengeschäfte vermittelt. Anderson, Sean, and Stephen Sloan. The secret of Chile's turnabout, if any can be found, was simply the inspiration to shrink the state. Later, the 2004 Valech Report confirmed the figure of 3,200 deaths but reduced the estimated number of disappearances. Der Gesundheitszustand wurde auch nach einer Bypass-Operation als extrem kritisch eingestuft. Zusammen mit politischen Morden und dem Verschwindenlassen von Personen sollten alle Gegner des Regimes systematisch eingeschüchtert und die Zivilgesellschaft und demokratische Basisorganisationen ausgelöscht werden. Er entschied über wichtige Fragen, etwa die Entlassung von Generälen oder die Ausrufung des Ausnahmezustandes, und war ein zentrales Organ Chiles. Lagos, in a TV interview, pointed his index finger towards the camera and directly called on Pinochet to account for all the "disappeared" persons. Die Streitkräfte Chiles unter Pinochets Oberbefehl stürzten die demokratisch gewählte Regierung Chiles. [4], The centre-left coalition Concertación was more united and coherent. Chile actually helped the United Kingdom during the war. Da in diesem Fall 18 Leichname noch nicht gefunden wurden, fällt er nicht unter das Amnestiegesetz von 1978. Folterungen wurden in allen Regionen Chiles vor allem in Konzentrationslagern, Gefängnissen, Kasernen und auf Schiffen durchgeführt. Die Festnahmen erfolgten meist in Fabriken, Universitäten und Gebäuden von Regierung, Linksparteien und Gewerkschaften. La Junta militar: Pinochet y la Constitución de 1980. Clearly, the regime viewed some Catholics as a threat and responded accordingly. Chile became embroiled in an unprecedented controversy in 1998. Though, Pinochet's Chilean Air Force General Fernando Matthei opposed a preventive war and responded that "I can guarantee that the Peruvians would destroy the Chilean Air Force in the first five minutes of the war". Carlos Ibáñez | In December 1974, Augusto Pinochet officially changed his title from Supreme Chief of the Nation to that of President of Chile. Über eine Million Chilenen aus dem linken Parteienspektrum mussten damals das Land verlassen, um dem Zugriff der Junta zu entgehen, sie suchten auf allen Kontinenten Zuflucht. [15] Allende also clashed with Chile's largest circulation newspaper El Mercurio. The oligarchy recovered most of its lost industrial and agricultural holdings, for the junta sold to private buyers most of the industries expropriated by Allende's Popular Unity government. Unmittelbar nach dem Putsch gab es die meisten Opfer, sowohl von Folterungen als auch von politischen Morden. Historian Hugo Fruhling's work highlights the multifaceted nature of Vicaria. Germán Riesco | In dem Bericht wird belegt, dass Menschen einfach aufgrund des Verdachts, „links“ zu sein, von der Geheimpolizei verschleppt, gefoltert und getötet wurden. Ramón Freire | The "Pinochet model," a potent mixture of authoritarianism and liberal economic reform, is sold as the elixir to nearly any country ailing under socialist transition. Er wurde nie demokratisch gewählt. [162] These memorials were built by family members of the victims, the government and ex-prisoners of the dictatorship. 14 Jahre nach dem Ende der Pinochet-Diktatur in Chile liegt der endgültige Bericht über die Exzesse der Militärs vor. The military installed themselves in power as a Military Government Junta, composed of the heads of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Carabineros (police). Jack Devine & Peter Kornbluh, 'Showdown in Santiago: What Really Happened in Chile? Under Pinochet, funding of military and internal defence spending rose 120% from 1974 to 1979. [143], Cueca and Mexican music coexisted with similar levels of popularity in the Chilean countryside in the 1970s. Am 5. "bitch"). [145] The profiferation of pirate cassettes was enabled by tape recorders,[144] and in some cases this activity turned commercial as evidenced by the pirate cassette brand Cumbre y Cuatro. Nach Prüfung seines Gesundheitszustands im Januar 2000 wurden Pinochet Konzentrationsschwierigkeiten und Gedächtnisverlust nach mehreren leichten Schlaganfällen attestiert. Bei der Verfolgung von chilenischen Oppositionellen kam es auch zu Gewaltverbrechen des chilenischen Militärs im Ausland. [143] The music catalog was censored with the aid of listas negras (black lists) but little is known on how these were composed and updated. Am 29. Augusto Pinochet | [152], The dictatorship promoted the figure of Nobel laureate Gabriela Mistral who was presented as a symbol of "summission to the authority" and "social order".[153]. [68], Another group of civilians that collaborated extensively with the regime were the Gremialists, whose movement started in 1966 in the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. When asked by his successor as Chile’s president, Patricio Aylwin, if he regretted the abuses committed by the military regime, Pinochet responded, “We were … [111] Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife Isabel Martínez de Perón who was overthrown in 1976 by the Argentine military who installed themselves as a new dictatorship in Argentina. This was done with support of journalists who "reported" the supposed events; in some cases, the fake combats were also staged. Am Todestag kam es in Santiago de Chile zu Unruhen durch Kundgebungen von Gegnern und Anhängern Pinochets. Pinochet errichtete ein faschistisches, wirtschaftlich neoliberales Militär-Regime und die Chicago Boys bekamen eine Spielwiese, auf der sie ihre wirtschaftsliberalen Fantasien ausleben konnten. However, the military remained out of civilian control for several years after the junta itself had lost power. Michelle Bachelet | [61] A particular fake combat event, lasting from September 8 to 9 1983, occurred when forces of the CNI lobbed grenades into a house, detonating the structure and killing the two men and a woman who were in the building. The Catholic Church, which at first expressed its gratitude to the armed forces for saving the country from the horrors of a "Marxist dictatorship" became, under the leadership of Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, the most outspoken critic of the regime's social and economic policies. A legal strategy of defending human rights Chile einfliegen Oberbefehl stürzten die demokratisch gewählte Regierung Chiles for president and several! Political stability to Chile, Tausende Bürger wurden gefoltert were imprisoned and systematically tortured Verbleib. In 1988 Chilean Variation '' has been seen as a potential model for nations that fail achieve... Devine & Peter Kornbluh, 'Showdown in Santiago de Chile » ( and are ) often to! 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