Different types and extent of professional development may affect outcomes differentially. We recognized that professional development could be viewed by the readers of this report in two ways. Three pairs of strong- and weak-implementation schools with similar demographics in terms of free and reduced-price lunch (range 76 to 93 percent), student living with only one parent (range 57 to 82 percent), mobility (range 8 to 16 percent), and ethnicity (range 43 to 98 percent African American) were identified. 21-26). Across all 63 at least minimally methodologically adequate studies, 44 percent reported some type of implementation fidelity measure, 3 percent reported and adjusted for it in interpreting their outcome measures, and 53 percent recorded no information on this issue. Absent this assurance, one must have a means of ensuring or measuring treatment integrity in order to make causal inferences. These are critical decisions that affect the quality of an evaluation. The committee reviewed the studies and found that evaluators had developed a number of features that merit inclusions in future work. Because of the importance of outcome measures on test results, we chose to examine whether the probabilities for the studies changed significantly across different types of outcome measures (national test, local test). The results of … Comparative Study Explained The comparative study question asks you to compare two texts under one of the following three modes of comparison. These data (Table 5-11) suggest that national tests tend to produce less positive results, and with the resulting gains falling into results showing no significant differences, suggesting that national tests demonstrate less curricular sensitivity and specificity. SOURCE: Thompson et al. Our work was limited by the short timeline set by the funding agencies resulting from the urgency of the task. Implementation fidelity is a measure of the basic extent of use of the curricular materials. Equally, it is imperative to examine the impact of high school curricula on other possible student trajectories, such as obtaining high school diplomas, moving into worlds of work or through transitional programs leading to technical training, two-year colleges, and so on. The at least minimally methodologically adequate studies reported on a variety of grade levels. Comparative analysis paper is a commonly assigned task that you will surely encounter during your academic career. When we conduct analyses across curricular program types or grade levels, we use these to facilitate comparisons. In addition, the source images were JPEG images that we crawled from the Web. FIGURE 5-2 Single-grade studies by grade and multigrade studies by grade band. Using the seven critical design elements of at least minimally methodologically adequate studies as a design template, we describe the overall database and discuss the array of choices on critical decision points with examples. They reported, for example, that 82 percent of CMP students used a “strategy focused on package price, unit price, or a combination of the two; those effective strategies were used by only 56 of 91 control students (62 percent)” (p. 264). Your job here is to elaborate whether those two things corroborate, contradict, correct, complicate, extend or debate one another. Only one study we reviewed, Peters (1992), used randomization in the assignment of students to treatments, but that occurred because the study was limited to one teacher teaching two sections and included substantial qualitative methods, so we coded it as quasi-experimental. Internal analysis refers to the knowledge necessary to understand the cases under review per se whereas external analysis is the analysis of the agreement or differences between cases. Reports should include clear statements of the limitations to generalization of the study. A number of analyses shed some light on various alternative hypotheses and may inform the conduct of future evaluations. No controls for teacher effects were possible, but the results do suggest the centrality of professional development for successful implementation or possibly suggest that the results were due to professional development rather than curriculum materials. First, the program’s objectives must be sufficiently well articulated to make. A study by Abrams (1989) (EX)3 on the use of Saxon algebra by ninth graders showed that concerns for implementation fidelity extend to all curricula, even those like Saxon whose methods may seem more likely to be consistent with common practice. To do this, we then coded the number of times any particular strand was measured across all studies that disaggregated by content strand. These variables were given the greatest weight in the matching process. There is an urgent need for a set of measures that would provide detailed information on specific concepts and conceptual development over time and may require use as embedded as well as summative assessment tools to provide precise enough data on curricular effectiveness. A second phase of our analysis was to examine the performance of students by content strand in the treatment group in comparison to the control groups. They developed three assessments. In summarizing these 26 studies, the first consideration was whether representative samples of students were evaluated. In designing an evaluation study, one must carefully consider, in the selection of units of analysis, how various characteristics of those units will affect the generalizability of the study. The committee takes the position that ultimately the question of the impact of different curricula on performance at the collegiate level should be resolved by whether students are adequately prepared to pursue careers in mathematical sciences, broadly defined, and to reason quantitatively about societal and technological issues. more, more sophisticated accounts would begin to permit, across studies, finer distinctions to emerge, such as the effect of a program on young African-American women or on first generation Asian students. Using your own observations, thoughts and ideas is always a bad thing to do in this particular comparative analysis step. Finally, it is imperative that evaluation studies systematically include demographically representative student populations and distinguish evaluations that follow the commercial patterns of use from those that seek to establish effectiveness with a diverse student population. We refer to these as “within” comparisons. (2001) compared the performance of UCSMP students with the performance of students in a more traditional program across several measures of achievement. A curriculum may be effective in some topics and less effective in others. More complete and thorough descriptions and configurations of characteristics of the subgroups being served at any location—with careful attention to interactions—is needed in evaluations. RANDOMIZED AND NONRANDOMIZED STUDIES 3 1 4.1 Definition of Randomization, 32 4.2 Properties of Randomization, 32 4.3 Further Points on Randomization, 34 4.4 Reasons for the Use of Nonrandomized Studies, 35 4.5 Types of Comparative Studies, 37 4.6 Our Attitude toward Nonrandomized Studies, 43 Comparative analysis paper is a commonly assigned task that you will surely encounter during your academic career. A Comparative study of two types of organ-sparing surgeries for early stage penile cancer: Wide local excision vs partial penectomy. When studies only examined performances of a group over time, such as in some longitudinal studies, it was coded as quasi-experimental normed. Table of Contents 1. Peters’ study showed no significant difference in placement scores between Saxon and UCSMP on the posttest, but did show differences on the embedded assessment. Was the generalizability of their findings limited by use of small sample size? In the studies using statistical tests other than t-tests or Chi-squares, two were evaluations of commercially generated materials and the rest were of NSF-supported materials. In effect, given the limitations of time and support, and the urgency of providing advice related to policy, we offer this filtering approach as an informal meta-analytic technique sufficient to permit us to address our primary task, namely, evaluating the quality of the evaluation studies. Table 5-9 shows the cases in which significant differences were recorded. ISM DHANBAD, INDIA. The task here is not to give the same amount of time to both the similarities and differences between the two things you are comparing. Did the outcome measures match the curriculum? We have concluded that the process of conducting such evaluations is in its adolescence and could benefit from careful synthesis and advice in order to increase its rigor, feasibility, and credibility. • She said a comparative study of about 15,000 randomly selected Gulf War veterans is planned for the near future. Asian Journal of Computer and Information Systems (ISSN: 2321 – 5658) Volume 02 – Issue 02, April 2014 Types of Expert System: Comparative Study Viral Nagori, Bhushan Trivedi GLS Institute of Computer Technology (MCA), India Email: viral011 {at} yahoo.com _____ ABSTRACT--- The paper describes the different classifications of expert systems. One approach to longitudinal studies was used by Webb and Dowling in their studies of the Interactive Mathematics Program (Webb and Dowling, 1995a, 1995b, 1995c). They further emphasize the need to be certain that such designs examine the level of mathematical reasoning of students, particularly in relation to their knowledge of understanding of the role of proofs and definitions and their facility with algebraic manipulation as we as carefully document the competencies taught in the curricular materials. These studies were significantly different at p = .004. Comparative analysis answers questions about how and why a system will react to perturbations of its parameters.This paper shows how perspectives can be used for comparative analysis, summarizes a soundness proof for the technique, demonstrates incompleteness, describes a working implementation, and presents experimental results. Studies should be clear if they are generalizing to groups who have already selected the materials (prior users) or to populations who might be interested in using the materials (demographically representative). The problem was clearly identified: poorer performance by certain subgroups of students (minorities—non-Asian, LEP students, sometimes females) and a resulting lack of representation of such groups in mathematics-reliant fields. Second, most NSF-supported programs and UCSMP were developed at university sites where there is access to the resources of graduate students and research staff. This study took into consideration data given in literature relating to other types of more widely-investigated biomass, such as bacteria and fungi (Kapoor and Viraraghavan, 1995, Pillichshammer et al., 1995, Pagnanelli et al., 2003, Veit et al., 2005, Yan and Viraraghavan, 2003, Zouboulis et al., 2004). Underline indicates statistically significant differences between the mean percentage correct for each pair. Other studies reported on the differences among subgroups within an experimental treatment, describing how well one group does in comparison with another group. Different methods exist in comparative legal research despite the effort of the discipline to combine them. For dichotomous codings, there can be as few as three compari-. In this case, problems were drawn from familiar circumstances but carefully designed to create significant cognitive challenges, and assess how well the informal strategies approach in CMP works in comparison to traditional instruction. The thesis of a comparative analysis is closely connected to the grounds on which you have based it. When an adjustment is made in outcomes based on differences in SES (n=14), the probabilities change to (.72, .00, .28), showing a higher likelihood of positive outcomes. The seven critical decision points we identified initially were: Choice of type of design: experimental or quasi-experimental; For those studies that do not use random assignment: what methods of establishing comparability of groups were built into the design—this includes student characteristics, teacher characteristics, and the extent to which professional development was involved as part of the definition of a curriculum; Definition of the appropriate unit of analysis (students, classes, teachers, schools, or districts); Inclusion of an examination of implementation components; Definition of the outcome measures and disaggregated results by program; The choice of statistical tests, including statistical significance levels and effect size; and. Across the studies, it appears that positive results are enhanced when accompanied by adequate professional development and the use of pedagogical methods consistent with those indicated by the curricula. Evaluations. Additionally, some researchers have favored designing comparative studies around a variety of case studies in which individuals are observed and behaviors are recorded. We hypothesize that this is partly because larger studies often do not examine actual classroom practices, but can obtain significance more easily due to large sample sizes. The, TABLE 5-13 Most Common Subgroups Used in the Analyses and the Number of Studies That Reported on That Variable, Number of Studies of Commercially Generated. NOTE: The mean is the mean percentage correct on a 36-item multiple-choice posttest. This complex set of institutional policies, school contexts, and individual personalities makes comparative studies, even quasi-experimental approaches, challenging, and thus demands an honest and feasible assessment of what can be expected of evaluation studies (Usiskin, 1997; Kilpatrick, 2002; Schoenfeld, 2002; Shafer, in press). In longitudinal studies, the problems created by student mobility were evident. In addition, a study must have included at least one of the following additional design elements: A report of implementation fidelity or professional development activity; Results disaggregated by content strands or by performance by student subgroups; and/or. It is useful to report effect sizes. This will allow you to avoid a ‘ping-pong’ effect in your comparative analysis. Both studies referenced in this section did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the comparative studies, but shed direct light on comparative issues of implementation. Again, subsequent designs should be better informed by these findings to improve the likelihood that they will produce less ambiguous results and replication of studies could also give more confidence in the findings. Finally, we recorded whether a study used multiple outcome measures. After selecting schools with heterogeneous grouping and no tracking, the researchers used a match-pair design where they selected classes from the same school on the basis of mathematics ability. For example, a study may or may not report on the comparability of the samples in terms of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. However, a decision not to report total scores led to a trade-off in the reliability and representativeness of the reported data, which must be addressed to increase the objectivity of the reports. Consider how the following questions provide one with a variety of perspectives on the effectiveness of curricular reform regarding equity: Does one expect all students to improve performance, thus raising the bar, but possibly not to decrease the gap between traditionally well-served and under-served students? In comparative study, you are examining two (or more) cases, specimens or events, often in the form of a table such as can be seen on the right where a column is … Was the generalizability of their findings limited by use of a restricted range of ability levels? with stronger preparations. More importantly, we can learn about methodologies and how to concentrate and focus to increase the likelihood of learning more quickly. (In this case, 'compare' means point out similarities and differences.) Their assessment strategy permitted them to investigate algebraic reasoning as an ability to use algebraic ideas and techniques to (1) mathematize quantitative problem situations, (2) use algebraic principles and procedures to solve equations, and (3) interpret results of reasoning and calculations. In one study, Carroll (2001), a five-year longitudinal study of Everyday Mathematics, the sample size began with 500 students, 24 classrooms, and 11 schools. A valuable outcome of a well-conducted evaluation is to determine not only if the experimental curriculum could ideally have a positive impact on learning, but whether it can survive or thrive in the conditions of schooling that are so variable across sites. It appears that classrooms and schools are the most likely units of analysis. The longitudinal study by Carroll (2001) showed that the effects of curricula may often accrue over time, but measurements of achievement present challenges to drawing such conclusions as the content and grade level change. It would be a waste of time, effort, and resources to attempt to estimate the impact of a program that lacks measurable outcomes or that has not been properly implemented. TABLE 5-12 Number of Studies That Disaggregated by Content Strand. C.G. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. When a study is not randomized, adjustments for these confounding variables should be included. A similar distinction and approach were used in our treatment of disaggregation by content strands. As Figure 5-1 shows, there were quite a few comparative studies of Everyday Mathematics (EM), Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Contemporary Mathematics in Context (Core-Plus Mathematics Project [CPMP]), Interactive Mathematics Program (IMP), UCSMP, and Saxon. Additionally, one must be sure that the outcome measures are appropriate for the range of performances in the groups and valid relative to the curricula under investigation. To avoid the problem of double coding, two studies, White et al. Of the 46 included studies of NSF-supported curricula, 19 disaggregated their data by student subgroup. Comparative evaluation study is an evolving methodology, and our purpose in conducting this review was to evaluate and learn from the efforts undertaken so far and advise on future efforts. The results showed diverse kinetics behavior of different hydrotreating reactions. Abstract. When these tests were of good quality and were representative of a genuine sample of a relevant population, such as NAEP reports or TIMSS results, the reports often provided one a reasonable indicator of the effects of the program if combined with a careful description of the sample. In Chapter 3 the relationship … We further identified a subset of these evaluation studies that met a set of minimum conditions that we termed at least minimally methodologically adequate studies. Of the studies that reported on gender (n=19), the NSF-supported ones (n=13) reported five cases in which the females outperformed their counterparts in the controls and one case in which the female-male gap decreased within the experimental treatments across grades. It would be a mistake to focus evaluation efforts solely or primarily on performance on entry-level courses, which can clearly function as filters and may overly emphasize procedural competence, but do not necessarily represent what concepts and skills lead to excellence and success in the field. For the commercially generated studies, most of the ones coded with the correct unit of analysis were UCSMP studies. Of these, 4 were eliminated for their sole focus on affect or conceptions, 3 were eliminated for their comparative focus on outcomes other than achievement, such as teacher-related variables, and 19 were eliminated for their failure to meet the minimum additional characteristics specified in the criteria above. FIGURE 5-7 Achievement (percentage correct) on Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS) items by U.S. precalculus students and functions, statistics, and trigonometry (FST) students. In examining the comparative studies, we identified seven critical decision points that we believed would directly affect the rigor and efficacy of the study design. The local density approximation (LDA) approach of the density functional theory (DFT) was used to estimate the adsorption characteristics and conductivities of these materials. They further point out that “[t]his 3-year pattern is consistent, on average, in rural, urban, and suburban schools, for males and females, for various minority groups, and for students for whom English was not their first language” (p. 4). The students would be taught the entire curriculum, and a test administered at the end of instruction would provide unequivocal results that would permit one to identify the more effective treatment. Classroom observations were conducted infrequently in these studies, except in cases when comparative studies were combined with case studies, typically with small numbers of schools and classes where observations. For some studies where multiple tests were conducted, a judgment was made as to whether the primary conclusions drawn treated the unit of analysis adequately. Jan-Mar 1992;14(1):10-5. doi: 10.3109/09638289209166420. Statistical significance only indicates whether the main-level differences between two curricula are large enough to not be due to chance, assuming they come from the same population. The authors reported results from three types of analyses: (1) total test scores, (2) fair test scores (scores reported by program but only on items on topics taught), and (3) conservative test scores (scores on common items taught in both). They found significant differences between UCSMP students and the non-UCSMP students on several measures. This particular part is the context where you group the two things you are about to compare. Requirement of proof of origin at import for non-preferential purposes.....2 2.3. 24 Sep 2020 • Anna Glazkova • Yury Egorov • Maksim Glazkov. 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